Punishment and Inequality in America by Bruce WesternOver the last thirty years, the prison population in the United States has increased more than sevenfold to over 2 million people, including vastly disproportionate numbers of minorities and people with little education. For some racial and educational groups, incarceration has become a depressingly regular experience, and prison culture and influence pervade their communities. Almost 60 percent of black male high school drop-outs in their early thirties have spent time in prison. In Punishment and Inequality in America, sociologist Bruce Western explores the recent era of mass incarceration and the serious social and economic consequences it has wrought. Punishment and Inequality in America dispels many of the myths about the relationships among crime, imprisonment, and inequality. While many people support the increase in incarceration because of recent reductions in crime, Western shows that the decrease in crime rates in the 1990s was mostly fueled by growth in city police forces and the pacification of the drug trade. Getting tough on crime with longer sentences only explains about 10 percent of the fall in crime, but has come at a significant cost. Punishment and Inequality in America reveals a strong relationship between incarceration and severely dampened economic prospects for former inmates. Western finds that because of their involvement in the penal system, young black men hardly benefited from the economic boom of the 1990s. Those who spent time in prison had much lower wages and employment rates than did similar men without criminal records. The losses from mass incarceration spread to the social sphere as well, leaving one out of ten young black children with a father behind bars by the end of the 1990s, thereby helping perpetuate the damaging cycle of broken families, poverty, and crime. The recent explosion of imprisonment is exacting heavy costs on American society and exacerbating inequality. Whereas college or the military were once the formative institutions in young mens lives, prison has increasingly usurped that role in many communities. Punishment and Inequality in America profiles how the growth in incarceration came about and the toll it is taking on the social and economic fabric of many American communities.i
Fire in the Minds of Men
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Billington , historian and Librarian of Congress. The book analyzes the ideas that inspired European revolutionary movements from the s to the s. The book takes its name from Dostoevsky 's The Possessed , and it attempts to investigate the passion for revolutionary change which developed strongly in Central Europe and Russia starting with the French Revolution of Unlike many other histories of revolutions and revolutionaries Billington does not focus on events and social causes leading to popular uprisings. In Billington's historiography he presents the second and third terms as reactions to and expansions of the more rudimentary and susceptible to egoism concept of liberty. He describes how the idea of brotherhood was inherited from secret and occult societies such as the freemasons and became an inflammatory idea which led to the Paris Commune and transferred to Russia in the form of Communism or the Russian Revolution aided by trans-national corporate socialists Antony Sutton and US state department arms and US boots on the ground and national socialism in s' Germany. Instead the idea of equality would become the fuel for socialism and communism.
In the often lonely business of producing a book like this, one is immeasurably . into the nocturnal confusion: "The fire is in the minds of men, not in the roofs of.
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Fire in the Minds of Men
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Over 30 years of anarchist writing from Ireland listed under hundreds of topics. Pro-Choice articles WSM abortion rights policy. Articles on Feminism Towards Womens Freedom. What ideas inspired the men and women who rose up in ? How did those ideas fare in the Irish Free State founded in ?