Principles of Behavior Modification by Albert BanduraDr Bandura presents basic psychological
principles governing human thought and
behavior within the conceptual framework
of social learning.
This theory emphasizes the prominent roles played by vicarious, symbolic, and self-regulatory processes in psychological functioning.
Dr Bandura believes the reason for the sustained interest in this book is because it provided a unified conceptual framework within which to study diverse psychological phenomena and it specified procedures for effecting change.
Behavior modification is the use of empirically demonstrated behavior change techniques to increase or decrease the frequency of behaviors, such as altering an individuals behaviors and reactions to stimuli through positive and negative reinforcement of adaptive behavior and/or the reduction of behavior through its extinction, punishment and/or satiation.
Most behavior modification programs currently used are those based on Applied behavior analysis (ABA), formerly known as the experimental analysis of behavior which was pioneered by B. F. Skinner.
Albert Bandura b.12/4/1925, in Mundare, Alberta, Canada is a psychologist who is the David Starr Jordan Professor Emeritus of Social Science in Psychology at Stanford University.
Over almost six decades, he has been responsible for contributions to many fields of psychology, including social cognitive theory, therapy and personality psychology, and was also influential in the transition between behaviorism and cognitive psychology. He is known as the originator of social learning theory and the theory of self-efficacy, and is also responsible for the influential 1961 Bobo doll experiment.
Bandura - Social Learning Theory
Social learning theory is a theory of learning process and social behavior which proposes that new behaviors can be acquired by observing and imitating others. When a particular behavior is rewarded regularly, it will most likely persist; conversely, if a particular behavior is constantly punished, it will most likely desist. In the s, B. Skinner delivered a series of lectures on verbal behavior, putting forth a more empirical approach to the subject than existed in psychology at the time. He did however mention that some forms of speech derived from words and sounds that had previously been heard echoic response , and that reinforcement from parents allowed these 'echoic responses' to be pared down to that of understandable speech. While he denied that there was any "instinct or faculty of imitation",  Skinner's behaviorist theories formed a basis for redevelopment into Social Learning Theory. At around the same time, Clark Lewis Hull , an American psychologist, was a strong proponent of behaviorist stimulus-response theories,  and headed a group at Yale University 's Institute of Human Relations.
The social learning theory of Bandura emphasizes the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others. Social learning theory explains human behavior in terms of continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioral, an environmental influences. The component processes underlying observational learning are: 1 Attention, including modeled events distinctiveness, affective valence, complexity, prevalence, functional value and observer characteristics sensory capacities, arousal level, perceptual set, past reinforcement , 2 Retention, including symbolic coding, cognitive organization, symbolic rehearsal, motor rehearsal , 3 Motor Reproduction, including physical capabilities, self-observation of reproduction, accuracy of feedback, and 4 Motivation, including external, vicarious and self reinforcement. Because it encompasses attention, memory and motivation, social learning theory spans both cognitive and behavioral frameworks. Social learning theory has been applied extensively to the understanding of aggression Bandura, and psychological disorders, particularly in the context of behavior modification Bandura, It is also the theoretical foundation for the technique of behavior modeling which is widely used in training programs. In recent years, Bandura has focused his work on the concept of self-efficacy in a variety of contexts e.
Social Learning Theory, theorized by Albert Bandura, posits that people learn from one another, via observation, imitation, and modeling. The theory has often been called a bridge between behaviorist and cognitive learning theories because it encompasses attention, memory, and motivation. Contributors Key Concepts Resources and References. Social learning theory explains human behavior in terms of continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences. Attention — various factors increase or decrease the amount of attention paid. Includes distinctiveness, affective valence, prevalence, complexity, functional value.