Judgment Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases by Daniel KahnemanThe thirty-five chapters in this book describe various judgmental heuristics and the biases they produce, not only in laboratory experiments but in important social, medical, and political situations as well. Individual chapters discuss the representativeness and availability heuristics, problems in judging covariation and control, overconfidence, multistage inference, social perception, medical diagnosis, risk perception, and methods for correcting and improving judgments under uncertainty. About half of the chapters are edited versions of classic articles; the remaining chapters are newly written for this book. Most review multiple studies or entire subareas of research and application rather than describing single experimental studies. This book will be useful to a wide range of students and researchers, as well as to decision makers seeking to gain insight into their judgments and to improve them.
Attribution Theory (B. Weiner)
Summary: Attribution Theory attempts to explain the world and to determine the cause of an event or behavior e. Originator: Bernard Weiner Key terms: Attribution, locus of control, stability, controllability. Attribution Theory Weiner. Weiner developed a theoretical framework that has become very influential in social psychology today.
13 Attribution Theories: Part 1
Back Next Attribution theory and motivation. Attribution theory was developed by the social psychologists Heider, Kelley, Jones and Ross. The theory is concerned with how people explain or attribute various causes to events. According to the 'attribution theory' it is normal for people to look for explanations or causes - that can be attributed to their own success or failure. An assumption of the attribution theory is that people will interpret their environment in such a way as to maintain a positive self-image.
One example would be, is a person crying because she is wimpy or because something hurt her? Attribution theory concerns all explanations made by people in attempts to explain their actions and events that occur. He believed that everyone is a psychologist to some extent, or at least tries to be. The naive psychologists within them often see cause and effect relationships even when there is none. Internal attribution refers to the tendency of assigning the cause or responsibility of a certain behavior or action to internal characteristic, rather than to outside forces. Internal attributions that we often hold responsible for others behavior are motives, personality, beliefs and so on. External attribution is exactly in contrast to internal attribution.